MiniBit Computer

Desigining and building a computer from scratch

Annotated view of MiniBit version 2 (December 2016)

Architecture Overview


I've always been curious with how a computer works at a low level. A while ago, I learned x86 assembly and started to really get a grasp of what actually happens in the silicon. However, modern processors are very complex and while I understood what it was doing, I didn't know how it was doing it. I wanted a simpler device that I could completely understand.

I decided the only way to get that would be to make my own processor. The project also ended up being a great opportunity to learn digital electronics.

Currently, I have a semi-functional prototype built on about a dozen breadboards (image above). I've also replicated the digital electronics in Verilog and I'm using that to test modifications.


I wanted to use only simple integrated circuits in my design. If I could create it out of discrete transistors in theory, it was fair play.

At the current stage, there is no display and input is performed with a dip switch panel. I have plans to add I/O capabilities which could eventually be extended to work with a modified display or keyboard.

Architecture Overview

MiniBit is an 8-bit processor. Components are connected to an 8-bit data bus or a 2-bit control bus.

There are 8 registers of which 2 are general purpose.

There are 23 unique instructions. Opcodes are either one or two bytes long.

All instructions take 6 clock cycles to execute. The clock itself, can be incremented manually for debugging or set to run automatically. Speed is controlled with a potentiometer. I haven't yet tested the maximum processor speed.

Currently, RAM addresses are 8-bit and therefore there are 256 bytes of addressable memory. However, I have plans to expand to 16-bit addresses and therefore 64 KB of memory.

There is no ROM so all data is lost when powered off.


Here are a list of registers along with their function:

For the registers that can be programmed to interact with the data bus, the following two bit identifiers are used in opcodes:

Write (aa) Read (bb)

ALU (arithmetic logic unit)

The ALU performs basic, 8-bit arithmetic operations on either one or both A and B registers and stores the output in O. Additionally, it stores operation flags in FL that can be used in further instructions. For instance, it is possible to use the carry flag to perform arithmetic operations on values of any size.

All ALU opcodes are of the type 111xxxxx and the lowest 5 bits are passed directly to the ALU as a secondary opcode.

The following operations are supported:

Data Operation

The following instructions can be used to move data around:

Note: the symbols aa and bb represent the two bit register identifiers.

Branching and Control

*Currently I/O operations are not implemented

More info coming soon...